Thursday, 2 February 2012

Sustainable Agriculture

Sustainable agriculture can be a broad and sometimes vague term with no universally agreed definition. I like to define sustainability in the broadest sense possible, in that sustainability is the ability to carry out practice indefinitely, without having to stop at the end of the negative impact on the environment, community, or the processes themselves. Sustainable agriculture thus involves more than just environmentally sound agricultural practices, but also necessarily includes consideration of economic issues of resource use) and human considerations, as well.

Why is it important to sustainability in agriculture?

Unfortunately, the current agricultural production system in place not only in the U.S., but in many parts of the world are highly unsustainable. Some of the problems with agriculture include the destruction of wild ecosystems, such as the removal of rainforests and other biomes to make room for farming, pollution, nutrient and chemical pollution from agricultural runoff and disruption of navigation and aquifer depletion of irrigation water use, and climate destabilization arising from a combination of factors.

What are best practices with regard to sustainability in agriculture and agriculture?

People often focus on some simple questions, such as organic farming, or the use of certain harmful chemicals, without looking at the broader picture. Even if all the world were to completely stop all harmful chemicals used in agriculture, and only organic farming, may still be disastrous environmental consequences of farming.

A key issue in sustainability, the most important of all the other issues, leaving intact ecosystems, rather than clearing or developing more than a certain portion of wild areas for agriculture or human consumption. The rule or the goal that I wanted to shoot for is to leave 70 percent of the land as unspoiled ecosystems. That does not mean that the land is not used in any way, but just not directly used for agriculture or for other purposes (ie no crops are grown there, the wood is not harvested, people do not live there), and that no regardless of the uses of the land only a slight impact on the ecosystem.

The economic value of wild areas:

One argument for the continued development that is necessary for the development of economic growth, and growth is necessary for economic health. I find this argument to be wrong, two compelling reasons. One is that the paradigm of unlimited economic growth without limits is a flawed one. Resources are always limited, and there is only a certain volume of goods that can be produced in a sustainable manner. Achieving sustainability requires abandoning the old model of economic growth.

My second reason is, however, that the intact wild ecosystems are actually necessary for sustained economic health, especially in the agricultural sector, but in almost all other aspects of society, as well.

Direct economic benefits from wildlife areas:

In terms of direct effects of intact wild ecosystems provide a buffer that prevents the spread of insects, diseases and other pests that can destroy crops. Our current system is unsustainable agriculture relies on expensive systems for monitoring of chemicals to control pests, which are continuously adjusted. Sustainable system will rely on the natural buffer zone, which not only prevent the spread of disease, but also domestic predators that feed on insect pests, which is probably for the pests to be established between the cultures in the first place. The organic farms and gardens that I have worked with that practice crop diversity and use of wildlife buffer area around the surgery note that they usually have almost no problems with pests.

Indirect economic benefits of wild areas:

Indirect effects, however, even stronger. Wild ecosystems stabilize climate and weather, which can greatly reduce or even prevent natural disasters like floods, droughts and moderate temperature and moisture, reducing the severity of extreme weather events such as cold or hot spells. Wild ecosystems can also produce a number of sources, including food, which can be exploited sustainably, including wild fish and meat, and plants for food or medicinal use. Wild areas also provide beauty, increase land values ​​in nearby neighborhoods, and providing recreation and income to the local economy through tourism. Often, intact wild areas can have many different uses. Finally, ecosystems and filter and clean water and air, and thereby reducing health care costs and reduce the need for the burden of environmental regulations.

In summary:

Sustainable agriculture is more than just organic agriculture, including environmental, economic and human factors together. The most important issue in organic agriculture is to preserve intact, wild ecosystems. I set a goal of preserving 70 percent of the country as a wild ecosystem. These countries can provide tremendous economic value, both for agriculture and society as a whole, both through direct and indirect effects.

Monoculture Farming

The concept of monoculture in agriculture refers to the cultivation of a crop over a large area. Monoculture is the norm in most large commercial agriculture in the U.S. and in many parts of the world. Monoculture has certain short-term benefit, primarily in terms of economies of scale, and automate the production process (and thereby reducing labor costs). However, long-term disadvantages of monoculture are huge - this method of farming has many negative effects on the environment, and in addition, these negative effects tend to become amplified over the long term. This article weighs the advantages and disadvantages of this type of unified approach to agriculture, and suggests some alternative practices that are more sustainable, environmentally and economically, and thus superior to all fields in the long run.

Pros and Cons of monoculture agriculture: what are its advantages?

He was immediately obvious that I'm not a fan or advocate monoculture. But there are some very direct and compelling reason for people to engage in this destructive practice. Before we talk about why this practice is so damaging, I think it is useful to first examine its advantages and benefits.

The main advantage of the economies of scale, primarily through automation. Particularly in the U.S., labor costs are very high, so that everything can be reduced by the use of labor in agriculture is very likely to lead to savings. This is often true even when the automation reduces the yield per hectare. For example, if the crop is grown, it can often be obtained in different ways, with varying degrees of automation. Increased automation in the harvest can lead to more waste, such as the grain left in fields, but if it requires less work (as a person driving a machine that covers the ground very quickly, unlike some people drive less, slower machines or Many people harvest crops by hand) to be superior in cost-benefit analysis, even if it results in more waste.

Disadvantages of monoculture farming:

Most interestingly, the lack of monoculture farming is not customizable. Wild ecosystems are diverse and wild populations of plants and animals are diverse. Eco contains many different types, each with a unique adaptation to its environment and the various advantages and disadvantages, in response to changing conditions. Similarly, natural populations of plant or animal species have genetic variability, and each individual plant or animal has slightly different characteristics. In addition, each population and the ecosystem as a whole, is constantly changing, adapting to changing environmental conditions and requirements imposed by other populations and species in the system.

Monoculture smooth this variability, destroying diversity and to replace it, at best, a kind, and at worst (as is standard in the U.S.), one variety - rows and rows of genetically identical crops, to be cloned, reproduced by cuttings or genetically modified seed stocks.

Sensitivity to pests:

Ecological landscape monoculture is that there is an offer of genetically identical plants, against the backdrop of wild pests, including fungi, bacteria, insects and many other organisms. These pests have a wild population each with its own biodiversity, and their populations are constantly changing and adapting crops to be able to eat or benefit from the presence of any crops are grown. Monoculture crops, however, not.changing, and unable to adapt because they have no genetic variability and may not be reproduced naturally. Pests, weeds, also adjusted, sowing in the field of culture, taking advantage of the extra sunlight, like most of monoculture crops provide sufficient light and not making full use of solar energy.

The only way to control pests in this system is to spend more and more energy and resources on chemical control, either through spraying of pesticides, fungicides, bactericides, or crops, or through genetic engineering of crops to enable them to produce these chemicals themselves. But no natural adjustment, pests will eventually develop to resist any of these defenses. Setting the monoculture itself is doomed, because it is against the natural way ecosystems work. This is completely unsustainable in the long run.

Negative impacts of monoculture:

For the cultivation of single crops require increasing levels of chemical inputs, the negative environmental impacts are also continuously increasing. Although people often prefer to use safer chemicals when they exist, and use them in such low concentrations as possible, be safe chemical necessarily will eventually stop working. Many of the chemicals used in commercial agriculture are known to be toxic and / or carcinogenic, or have other negative impacts on people. But even chemicals that are safe for human consumption or exposure can have negative impacts on the environment, for example, news, widely used herbicide, much more toxic to amphibians than men.

Other negative effects of monoculture:

Besides the negative impact on the environment, monoculture also destroys our culture. Monoculture and large factory farming is largely responsible for or associated with the alienation of Americans from farming practices, as well as moving from an economy in which a large portion of people who are directly involved in agriculture to the society in which people see food as an industrial product to be purchased at the store with little idea where it comes from.

In addition to monocultures: how you can help protect the environment and food and farming culture:

Empire of factory farming and large-scale monocultures of happiness is crumbling. You can do your part to learn more about gardening, experimenting with growing some of your own food, even if you only have a small city yard, or even some growing indoors or on a porch or balcony if you have no yard. You can also explore the farmers market with locally grown food, and encourage small, local production of various agricultural practices, using the money to support these farmers. As we returned to the diversification of agriculture, we will become more connected to our food, and help protect our environment as well.

Nutrient Pollution

Nutrient pollution refers to a form of pollution in which nutrients, usually nitrogen and phosphorus, which are present in high concentrations is harmful to the ecosystem. Nutrient pollution is primarily a problem in aquatic ecosystems such as streams, rivers, bays and lakes. The issue of concern in lakes and relatively closed or contained bays, as well as Chesapeake Bay. Nutrient pollution caused primarily by the use of mineral fertilizers in agriculture, and waste from animal operations. The negative effects of this pollution are disturb, damage or destroy aquatic ecosystems, which can often have negative impacts on the environment, destroying the fishing industry.

This article provides a brief overview of nutrient pollution, including its causes in agriculture and its effects on the transport and fishing industries. The article concludes some specific recommendations that can be done to prevent this type of pollution, both for the farmers, as well as concerned citizens.

How to nutrient pollution?

Nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus are essential for all living ecosystems. Phosphorus is present in the soil, and usually originates from the underlying rocks or geological substrates. Nitrogen is present in the atmosphere, but only enters the ecosystem through a complex process of nitrogen fixation, which is implemented primarily of certain plants and bacteria. Plant growth is limited availability of nitrogen, phosphorus and other nutrients, so in agriculture, crop yields can often be improved by applying fertilizers containing these nutrients.

Plants, however, will only use a certain amount of nutrients, after as much as they need, then they are limited by other factors, such as the availability of sunlight or water, and the remainder of the nutrients remain in the soil, where the leeches when rains, and flees to the groundwater or nearby streams.

While nutrients are beneficial for some plants, excessive nutrients can cause problems in aquatic ecosystems, primarily because it can cause algae blooms. Algae, which are fast-growing microbes and simple plants to respond to the influx of nutrients, which is growing rapidly. New growth can choke out existing plants, cloud water and clog waterways. When the algae begin to die, the process uses the dissolved oxygen, and if the algae bloom is large enough, can create a dead zone. This process is called eutrophication. Eutrophication is primarily a problem in lakes and enclosed bodies of water, but it occurs in rivers and bays, as well. Even in areas where eutrophication does not occur, nutrients still can harm and disrupt ecosystems, altering the balance of different types.

Impact on fisheries:

The issue of pollution caused by runoff of nutrients from agriculture is not just a question of environmental protection. This form of pollution has immediate and tangible economic impacts. When the aquatic ecosystem is disturbed, the population of all animals, including fish, crabs, oysters and other shellfish, are disrupted. In many cases, as in the Chesapeake Bay, the entire fishing industry was destroyed. Entire cities, rely on fishing for their livelihood, were driven to the economic collapse as a result of the last populations of fish, partly because of nutrient pollution, in combination with other types of agricultural and industrial pollution.

The causes of nutrient pollution:

The vast majority of cases of pollution caused by nutrients within agriculture. The main culprits are two excessive use of fertilizers for growing crops and breeding business waste runoff on farming operations, such as pig farms and chicken farms.

Nutrient runoff is wasted resources:

Because nutrients are valuable inputs in the agricultural process, including nutrient pollution, unnecessary waste, waste from the entrance, or lose a resource that is discarded. In sustainable agricultural practices, the farmer will only apply to the amount of fertilizer needed, and nutrients are taken up entirely of crops that are grown. In sustainable animal production, animal waste will be collected and used as fertilizer for other crops. For example, traditional agricultural methods to use cow manure and large animals, as well as chicken and pig waste to fertilize other crops.

Point to Hope:

This last point is the realization of hope. Nutrient pollution is not necessary, it is ineffective. This problem can be solved. But there are other ways in which people can prevent or reduce the effects of this form of pollution. One simple but powerful solution to create a buffer zone, wild green spaces, along roads. By filling in areas along streams and rivers with abundant plant growth, plants will extract nutrients from the water before it flows into the river, and use it for their growth. Preservation and restoration of wetlands also has a similar effect, filtering nutrients from water, and plants can use them for their own growth. Raising awareness about these issues, we can ultimately solve the problem of nutrient pollution.

Grapevines That Produce

Vine is the place where it starts, if you want wine. The development of root stock in the industry which includes the science of Mother Nature at its finest. Cloning, grow and then planting the root stock of crude is a science that is the core of everything, even human existence ... DNA. It is a sprout above the soil produces a new clone of the grape that produces grapes that make wine.

See where the grapes come from, but where the wines come from? I've got the answer to this mystery, it's nursery as a place for you to choose your plants for spring planting. There is little difference, because a very high tech. Napa's oldest nursery grapevines in California.

Nurseries turn out some very prestigious root stock that may have some very impressive pedigrees. Some of the vines are very prestigious pedigree includes the root stock. And yes, vineyard owners have confirmed reserves of DNA testing. To support this industry, many of California's premier universities offer degrees in viticulture.

Nurseries use cold storage (this is where the dormant vines are stored awaiting sale), it will keep the wine fresh and sleeping. It would not be unusual for a vine nursery offering about 15 clones of Cabernet Sauvignon and 30 clones of Chardonnay and Pinot Noir equal number of clones. When you decide to replant the vineyard, for several reasons, these clones are what would be the owner of the vineyard exciting. Two things are critical when it comes to new planting: 1.The characteristics of varieties and second cloned root system. The dogs were cloned varietals affect such things as the final yield or tannins or make early maturing fruit. The root system / notification is important, because that is what is dictated by conditions of soil and climate where the grapes are planted.

What is a "clone"? Well, Junior High biology comes into play here. Root stock is selected to get a piece ("branches" for me) wines with other desired DNA. What is new is growing vine that will produce cloned fruit. Vaccination is just that, slice off the branch you want to clone vines and cut a notch in the root stock and blow air in the cloning of a piece of root stock and wrap tightly and place it in the ground for 1 year to grow. This is a very simple description, assuming that the vaccination is going on, and then in a year that is the root stock harvested and put in cold storage in the dark to sleep and when planted in the vineyard. Once the vineyard will be 3 years for this new cloned varieties to produce fruit. This is just one of many reasons why it is so precious wine.

Wines will be sold for $ 3 - $ 4 each and have about 1,000 wine per hectare, sometime 2000 or more. Currently vineyard owners are wary of new plantings because of the slowdown in the economy.

Wines can live 150-200 years, so who buys new vineyards? There are, of course, new vineyards are planted in such places as Texas, Michigan, NC, Virginia and California, they require a root stock. Then there are the new plant because of the old vines to produce bad effects. Then there are always present destructive disease. Finally, marketing considerations brought on by the ever-changing consumer tastes, which requires a new varietal wines. "

Some nurseries in the United States are licensed by the Association of European developers clone called ENTAV. This is the European body that test root stock and genetics, developed new clones and new clones breeds forever changed the vineyard conditions. UC Davis is also a top institution in California, which helps new wine heritage at the forefront of evolution

Nursery and How to Plant a Hedge

November at the nursery is a busy time of year. Total unlike plants that will remain dormant, resting during the winter months. Bare root season is usually muddy, cold, wet, windy affair, but time is very mild so far, just as our first real frost this morning, and we are almost in December.

Bare root season for me, clearly shows the difference between the nursery and garden center.

Digging trenches to toe in sewage back braking work. No machines where I work, it's all done by hand.

Bare root plants are sold without soil around the roots and lifted when leaves fall, the buds produce protective shells and plants go into dormant state during winter. Evergreen plants are usually plucked with the root ball, because the plants are in active growth throughout the year, thus leaving some soil around the roots is less of a shock when they were eliminated. Bareroot plants are cheaper than container plants.

There is a lot of the kinds to choose from, and this time of year is definitely the best time for planting, as long as the soil is applied. So, no frozen or water logged.

The best plants are purchased at this time of year seems to be hedging plants. Beech, hornbeam, and hedges of native flora and fauna are a good choice. Fruit trees are often purchased at this time of year too, with lots of people are planting orchards.

Another big seller is the rose, which is a specialty where I work, because my own rose bud and people often come back in this time of year, every year, only to have them. Budding is a form of reproduction, not really implemented several small retail nurseries. Companies typically buy from the big growers.

All the best to everyone and happy planting.

How to plant a hedge

In mid-autumn-winter is the ideal time to plant both deciduous and evergreen hedges.

Planting hedges is very straight forward, a lot of digging is involved, so be prepared to get a little dirty. Preparation is the most important part of planting a hedge.

When buying plants, planting it is important to know the distance, as they differ slightly depending on what plants you choose and whether or not you want one line or staggered double row. As a rule deciduous plants planted one foot apart, Buxus sempervirens (box) is planted one foot apart, Taxus baccata (yew) is planted, two feet apart, and everyone else, evergreen plants are spaced at three feet apart.

It is important that the site is well drained and free of weeds. This will help plant roots establish quicker.

Rabbit and deer problems must also be taken into account. Canes and guards may need to be purchased for this question.

Subsequent includes watering plants during drought periods, feeding, what can be done in the spring crop, which is carried out

Wool Testing Methods

Consumer IS fo the oldest existing fiber obtained and used with many testing methods used during the winter wool MEMBERSHIP to determine satisfaction and fineness. Trained farmers will bring their sheep to be tested or evaluated on the basis of the fullness of their wool and sheep's health. Trained shoppers will not try to categorize levels of wool based on desired outcomes or use for wool, Such as fine clothes or carpets.

Two methods are Early American Black or vascular system, and English or Spinning Count System. As researched, the diameter of fibers is the best way to gauge the level of wool for the desired end use. Neither is as accurate as micron system that uses self today, but that was enough uncertainty at the time.

The original sheep that are native to America was very thick coarse wool, which was not Good for working soft garments. In 1800 Merino rams from Spain were imported into mutually can interbreed with native sheep. To hope is to change, Total fine Merino rams two to improve fiber fineness of the native sheep. When this process began the system of evaluation that has been created MEMBERSHIP WOULD BE monitor and chart progress pairs funds and future generations. The U.S. blood system was established. To be based on the level of blood Merino OK. Class or fiber diameter is expressed as a thoroughbred Be Fine Merino, medium that was 3/8 Merino, knitted or very Gruber What is less than 1/4 Merino blood. This grading system has helped buyers and sellers who then u able to choose the correct evaluation of the product itself uses u wanted to do.

The second system is English or Spinning Count System. This system is slightly more accurate because it is on the basis of the actual sampling of fibers not from sheep strains do. Measurement called the spinning strength was determined on the basis of the yarn produced Funds Half pound of clean wool. Do you still variable because they depend on spinning equipment itself uses, but is more accurate than depending on the bloodlines. This is a processing Hanks funds yarn produced. Hank IS AROUND 560 km or 512 meters. Razine yarn produced in the range of funds is very nice no finer than 80 spins, connecting Central link layer will be about 56 turns, a little coarser fibers of the 36 rounds.

Both systems for testing wool are a good comparison fund for wool testing their time.

While the professional Alan B. Stable merchant animal skin, selling such as sheep skin garment, the occasional sale of by-products of animal origin such as raw greasy wool. Implies knowledge of wool for testing different types of wool i and AS i understand the characteristics of merino wool

Could the Debate

It is absolutely amazing the animosity over GM crops, and it is incredible the level of conspiratorial debris out there online, as the coordinator for a think tank which happens to operate online, I am blown away by it all, literally. In fact, I should by a wind farm to harvest all this genetically modified hot air some day.

The other day, I was discussing Genetically Modified foods with an acquaintance, Mark is a seed specialist, and futurist thinker with many innovations, he stated that;

"GM foods are a complicated issue, they offer many solutions to modern day problems but they also come with their own complications. Growing a high yield crop of corn that can survive the harsh environment is undoubtedly progress. The downside to GM foods is that they can pass their modified genes on to the local plant varieties, given enough time the effects of this could be detrimental to the local ecosystem as a whole. With proper planning and segregation of these crops the idea could still work."

Well, it is an issue, terminator seeds do prevent some of this, but there are issues and a case study with sunflower seeds in the wild causing havoc. However, genetically modified crops can very much help us with things like the Ug99 fungus and such issues as producing drought resistant crops, just as soil bacteria root research is immensely wise. I mostly worry about crop species variations, and inadvertently reducing down to one type of rice, corn, wheat, or soybean. Diversification is important, and very wise, which is why I like projects such as the millennium seed vault idea - just in case.

Now then, what about, and Mark and I talked about this also, the challenges in certain regions where they've obviously out-populated their food resources? We need to have a way for those regions with abundant food production to assist, that makes sense. Still, with the challenge of let's say starving Africans, Haitians, or Indians - the procreation rates are too high, and as we feed more people or "give" them more food, they continue to up-step their procreation rates.

What can we do to fix this problem, on that our very giving of food to feed the poor is currently exacerbating said problem?

I believe people should be able to choose if they wish to eat genetically modified crops in this case, as they can either take the free food and aid, or die of starvation, but there is a catch, if you take the food, that food aid will be fortified with supplements slowing down the chances or percentage of reproduction, thus, reducing the number of off-springs so that you do not exacerbate the problem by creating an environment where healthy humans have nothing better to do but reproduce because we made it possible by feeding them in the first place.

Many believe that procreation is a human right. Okay, sure one can say that, and I would submit to you that they have the choice, it just comes with serious ramifications, if you decide to take free food. This is such a contentious and heated argument, that I will merely leave you with this thought, and let you decide. Please consider all this and think on it.

How to Find a CSA Near You

CSA stalak za Zajednice Sponzorirani poljoprivrede i CSA je izraz koristi za opisivanje program koji omogućuje potrošaču da biste dobili svježe lokalno uzgojeno voće i povrće izravno od lokalnog farmera. Neki poljoprivrednici koji nude CSA program će spadati bodova, neki dostaviti, a drugi vam omogućiti da odaberete svoj tjedni proizvode pravo na farmi.

Zajednica podržava poljoprivreda zapravo počeo kao program u ranim 1960-ih u Njemačkoj, Japanu i Švicarskoj zbog zabrinutosti za sigurnost hrane i razvoj poljoprivrednog zemljišta. U to vrijeme grupa potrošača i poljoprivrednika formirana suradnje partnerstva ili Co-OPS, da financira rast za poljoprivrednike i dati potrošačima svježe lokalno uzgojene proizvode. Mnogi izvorni CSA se koristi organski i biodinamički poljoprivredne prakse, a to se nastavlja i danas.

CSA je počeo nicati i ukorijeniti se u SAD-u mnogo kasnije. Godine 1984 Jan VanderTuin je zaslužan za dovođenje ADS koncept u SAD iz Europe. CSA program u SAD-u vidjeli rast usmjerena uglavnom na sjeverozapadu duž pacifičke obale, ali u zadnje vrijeme ideja je proširila diljem zemlje i sada se nudi u svakoj državi.

Kako CSA rad?

Zajednica podržava poljoprivrede programi razlikuju u načinu na koji su strukturirana kao poljoprivrednici i potrošači pronaći načine kako bi program koji rade za njih. Obično se program ponudi dionice i pol dionice. Kada potrošač kupuje udio imaju pravo na unaprijed određen količinom hrane, a proizvodi se u godišnjim dobima. Budući da sezona i berba puta široko varirati ovisno o mjestu i da li su uvjeti u određenoj sezoni ADS vođeni ciljeva, a ne obveza. Na kraju CSA pruža način za potrošače da podijele rizike koji bi inače biti na poljoprivrednike da nose isključivo.

Kako pronaći ADS vama blizak

Internet je prekrasan alat za pronalaženje i popis informacija, a također je napravio to lakše pronaći lokalni CSA program bez obzira gdje živite. Možete pitati svoje prijatelje i susjede je znaju lokalnog programa, možda su već udio nositelj u ADS. Ovdje su neke resurse na webu koji će vam pomoći naći lokalne CSA program

Calcium Deficiency

Calcium is one of the most important plant nutrients. It is important to build a strong structure of cell membranes, and plays an important role in the metabolism of nitrogen, protein and formation of potassium absorption. Calcium deficiencies are usually specified in the zone of growth, such as the new top and root growth, and at the lower end of the fruit. Blossom End Rot (BER) in pepper and tomato is an excellent example of how a weakened cell membranes to reduce fruit quality and economic performance.

Although the information is there, it's a miracle that we are uninformed about calcium diet. Although we have a practical understanding of its role as a soil amendment, eliminating the lack of calcium in the California agriculture can be a challenge. Supplying plant need for calcium is not as simple as calculating the soil lime requirements. Nutrients depends on many factors beyond the total turnover, such as pH, CEC, cation saturation of the CEC, water availability and quality to name a few.

There are two factors that can affect calcium.

Ca / Mg ratio: Calcium availability may be limited by excess magnesium. Calcium is found immediately below magnesium in the periodic table of elements that describe the "similar" electro-chemical properties, which play a role in the dynamics of the cation exchange occurring at the sites of exchange in the root zone. I personally believe that there is no magic number for Ca / Mg ratio, but the breeder should pay attention to crop performance and take into account the total amount of Mg as a possible source of interference with calcium intake. In this approach, the laboratory calculates fertilizer recommendations assume an advisory role, medium grower experience of reading his cutting reply.

Calcium is usually fixed within a plant. It moves up from the roots through the Xylem in the evaporation of water column moves to the leaves, a few moves down the figure. Because nearly unidirectional flow, the available supply of calcium is needed to support the integrity of the cells into new areas of growth of plants, such as shoots, roots and fruits.
Calcium carbonate is an excellent choice of material for the supply of calcium for relatively low cost, chemical purity and low energy required for dissociation of carbonate counterpart. Redox reactions in the presence of weak carboxylic acids exuded by the roots and micro-organisms present in soil. Reducing particle size increases the surface area available to be oxidized, increasing the calcium available for plant use.

Unlike the laboratory analysis of the calculated dietary approach, a small amount of micronized calcium carbonate could be much more effective in eliminating the lack of calcium salts of the counter balancing of large amounts of coarse grade of liming materials. Smaller particles can reach the root of moving with the flow of water through the pores of the soil mass, creating a buffer zone around the roots that effectively balances risk factors, such as sodium, aluminum and magnesium excess. This explains why it makes sense economically to use a smaller amount of high quality fertilizer calcium than applying large amounts of lime that can not get to the root zone until it was threatened by the environment.

My name is Gerald Igans, I Agri-Business Developer directly involved in the transition economies to help move from conventional to sustainable and / or organic agriculture. For the past ten years I have focused on plant nutrition dynamics and natural resistance to pathogens occur in soils with high bio-activity. It has been my experience that the opinion is based, including organic micronized calcium in the diet of specialty crops and vegetables, especially those grown in the absence of calcium soils is an important part in producing superior results

Farming And Agriculture

A tractor is a farming vehicle traditionally used to mechanise agricultural tasks such as tillage. However, the tractor has come a long way since its humble beginning as a steam engine on wheels during the early 19th century. Today, tractors are used for ploughing, tilling and planting fields. Modern tractors can be used for a variety of tasks including routine lawn care, landscape maintenance, moving or spreading fertiliser and clearing bushes.

Whether you own a small farm or would simply like to work on your lawn and garden, you will find that using a tractor will make these chores easier for you. In this article, we discuss the top advantages of using tractors to mechanise your farming, gardening or even excavating tasks.

Wide Range

There is a wide range of tractors available today, each suitable for a specific task. If you need to work on a large garden or an extensive area of field or pasture, a subcompact or compact tractor will fit heavy duty landscaping jobs and tasks like digging, hauling or ploughing. A subcompact tractor is a smaller version of a compact tractor. It has the power and versatility to perform a large range of gardening tasks including mowing, moving mulch and tilling gardens. A compact tractor is a smaller version of the utility tractor and is ideal for landscaping tasks. Subcompact and compact tractors have a horsepower that ranges from 15hp to 40hp.

If you have a small farm and need to mechanise more complex farming tasks, then you will need a utility tractor. Utility tractors come in different models and offer a horsepower that ranges from 45hp to 110hp. Utility tractors are also known as diesel tractors because diesel is typically used to fuel these large tractors. There is also a wide range of farming implements that can be attached to utility tractors to help you accomplish a variety of tough jobs on the farm.


Tractors are now designed and manufactured to be versatile so that a single tractor can perform a wide range of tasks. For instance, a compact tractor can accomplish tasks that range from gardening to simple farming jobs. You can also attach implements to a compact tractor such as front loaders or back hoes to perform an even wider range of jobs.

Power and durability

Tractors are also typically designed to run over rough terrain and pull extremely heavy loads. The engine generates a large amount of force to get the tractor to run and perform its tasks, making it effective in tough farming or landscape tasks. Modern tractors also come with cast iron front axles for extra strength and durability, so you can rely on your tractor to perform under tough conditions.

Ease of transmission and operation

You might find a manual transmission on a tractor difficult to use, but features of modern tractors such as powershift transmission and hydrostatic transmission make operation much easier. Powershift transmission facilitates smooth shifting through 8 gears in low range and 8 gears in high range while hydrostatic transmission allows for effortless changes in direction. Modern tractors also provide power steering to make turning much easier. Some more advanced models are also able to reduce operator fatigue with exclusive shift controls and an automatically responsive transmission.

Ease of installing gardening and farming implements

A variety of gardening and farming implements including a front end loader attachment or a back hoe can be installed on to a tractor, so that it can perform a wider range of tasks. A tractor may have three-point hitches and a power take-off or PTO. A three-point hitch attaches an implement, secures it in place and also lifts and lowers the implement. The PTO is a shaft that goes from the tractor to the implement and transfers the tractor's engine power to it. Gardening and farming implements are considered heavy equipment so make sure you have the appropriate knowledge and training before you install and use it.

This article was written by Tom Jerrat for Boya Equipment. Boya Equipment is the leading Kubota and Schaffer Loaders dealership in Perth, Australia. They also provide machines including tractors, loaders, generators, mowers and utility vehicles. Please visit for more information.